Border treaties: how were Costa Rica’s borders defined?
How were Costa Rica’s borders defined? Learn about the history of the creation of its borders and border treaties.
Defining a country’s territory is always an extremely delicate and important action, as each nation has its own needs and interests.
In order to define the territory of Costa Rica, it was necessary to create several treaties, as a result of the dialogue between the different countries bordering Costa Rica. In this article we will review these treaties.
Border with Nicaragua
The border between Nicaragua and Costa Rica was established thanks to the Treaty of Cañas-Jerez of 1858.
This treaty was an agreement between Costa Rica and Nicaragua that arose as a solution to a growing border tension between the two countries. All this occurred due to Nicaragua’s discontent with the https://www.sensorialsunsets.com/en/guancaste-annexation-of-nicoya/ to Costa Rica. On top of that, none of the border treaties of previous years had been able to mitigate the tensions.
To improve their relations, Nicaragua sent General Máximo Jerez Tellería, Plenipotentiary Minister to San José to try to negotiate a new agreement. Costa Rica then appointed General José María Cañas Escamilla to conduct the dialogue.
The treaty was approved days after the meeting by the majority of the Congress of Costa Rica and received the approval of the Constituent Assembly of Nicaragua.
Border with Panama
With respect to the border with Panama, the boundary was agreed by means of the Echandi-Fernández Treaty of 1941. This negotiation was carried out between the Costa Rican foreign minister Alberto Echandi Montero and the Panamanian ambassador Ezequiel Fernández Jaén.
The boundary dispute between the two countries began in the 19th century since Panama claimed as its own the Mosquitia territory (from the Sixaola River to Cape Gracias a Dios). In turn, Costa Rica claimed the territory from Escudo de Veraguas Island, in the Atlantic, to the mouth of the Chiriqui Viejo River, in the Pacific.
After the occupation of the Bocas del Toro region by New Granada in 1836, Costa Rica and Panama signed several agreements to try to resolve the border disputes. However, both countries finally agreed on the Echandi-Fernandez.
The treaty establishes a free navigation regime for both countries on the Sixaola and Yorkín rivers, in the part where they serve as a border.
Regarding maritime borders, Costa Rica borders Ecuador, Colombia and Panama.
Thanks to the Gutiérrez-Terrán Treaty, it has been possible to define the maritime limits between Costa Rica and Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean. This agreement was signed in 1985 by the chancellors of both countries.
Costa Rica borders Colombia in the Caribbean Sea according to the Facio-Fernandez Treaty, signed in 1977 by the Ambassador Plenipotentiate of Colombia in Costa Rica and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Costa Rica.
There is also the Gutiérrez-Lloreda Treaty, signed in 1984 between the foreign ministers of Costa Rica and Colombia.
The agreement formally establishes the border limit in the Pacific Ocean between these two countries. In addition, it is the first international recognition of the marine and submarine areas that Costa Rica declares as belonging to it, based on Isla del Coco.
Finally, there is the Calderón-Ozores Treaty of 1980, which delimited the borders corresponding to the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean.